1. Ngô Thanh Hà

    Ngô Thanh Hà Học sinh mới Thành viên

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    The English language is part of the Indo
    European family of languages. Most modern European languages (but not, for example, Hungarian) and some Asian languages, like Hindi and Sanskrit, are members of this family as well. Two European branches of Indo - European are particularly important to consider when looking at the history of how English developed: Germanic languages and the Romance languages, such as French, Italian, and Spanish, which have their roots in Latin. English is in the Germanic branch of Indo - European languages. This branch of languages came into existence about three thousand years ago in an area around the Elbe River in what is now Germany. Around the second century BC, what had begun as one Germanic language split off into
    three disparate groups. One of these groups eventually evolved to become the German language spoken today. Another group was known as West Germanic.
    In the fifth and sixth centuries AD, West Germanic invaders called the Angles and the Saxons came to the
    British Isles. They spoke two dialects of West Germanic that were similar to one another, and these dialects merged into what we today call Old English, which was very similar to West Germanic. These invaders pushed the original Celtic speaking inhabitants out of what is now England. There are still a few Celtic words in English, though. The English language of that period was also influenced by the Vikings.
    Old English lasted until 1100, about the time of the Norman Conquest. When the Normans, residents of what is now a region ofFrance, invaded and conquered England, the English language was forever changed. The Normans spoke a dialect of Old French known as Anglo - Norman, which had both French and Germanic influences. This became the chosen language of the upper class of England, the Normans, for more than one hundred years, while the majority of people continued to speak Old English. However, the loss of Normandy to France in 1204 changed this situation. The Norman nobles started to sever their connections with France
    and speak a modified version of Anglo - Norman. This new language, which was a combination of Anglo -
    Norman and Old English, is now known as Middle English. While modem speakers of English would not be able to read or understand Old English, they could, with some difficulty, read Middle English. By 1362, English had become the official language of England.
    The alterations that marked these early periods of English were not the end of its transformation, however. During the Renaissance, English changed again. One reason for this was that many Latin and Greek words were introduced into English as scholars rediscovered important ancient works written in those languages. In addition, many other completely original words were introduced into English, and the famous playwright William Shakespeare is credited with having either created or recorded over two thousand of these words.
    There were two other major influences in the transformation of Middle English into Modern English. One is called the “Great Vowel Shift.” This term refers to a change in pronunciation that began around 1400. Though a Modern English reader could make sense of something written in Middle English, it would sound completely foreign. One example of the change in pronunciation is that the letter “e” at the end of many English words became silent. Middle
    English speakers would have
    pronounced it. The other influence in the development of Modern English was the invention of the printing press and the subsequent proliferation of books. Prior to the printing press, spelling, grammar, and even usage were very flexible. However, with the advent of printed texts, these elements of the language became standardised, so there has been far less variability in Modern English than there was in earlier forms.
    Changes since the time of Shakespeare have been mainly in the category of vocabulary. Technological advances have made necessary the creation of words to describe new objects, processes, and ideas. Industry, computers, and space travel all required new descriptive terms. Words can also fall out of usage from one generation to the next. Another reason for the evolving vocabularies has been the increasing communication between and migration of people all over the world. Words from foreign places have been absorbed into the language. For example, the common word “shampoo” comes from the Hindi language. Overall, it can be seen that English has undergone great transformations since its origin, over three thousand years ago, on the shores of the Elbe River.

    1. A ccording to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about the English language?
    A. It is more closely related to Sanskrit than Hungarian.
    B. It is considered a Romance language, like Spanish.
    C. It is more closely related to French than German.
    D. It is not considered an Indo - European language.
    2.According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true about Old English?
    A. It was most influenced by the Celtic and Viking languages.
    B. It was widely used prior to the fifth and sixth centuries AD.
    C. It was similar to the language spoken by the original inhabitants of England.
    D. It was a combination of two groups of West Germanic language family.
    3.The word “This” in paragraph 3 refers to _____.
    A.Old French
    B. Anglo - Norman
    C. Germanic
    D. Old English
    4.The word “sever” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to _____.
    A. break
    B. define
    C. change
    D. support
    5. In paragraph 3, the author states that _____.
    A.immediately following the Norman Conquest, the residents of England spoke Middle English
    B.the nobility spoke a different language than the common people for more than a century in England
    C.the loss of Normandy to France began a period of cultural interchange between England and France
    D. Middle English texts would be impossible for modern English speakers to read and understand
    6. Why does the author discuss current English speakers in paragraph 3?
    A. To compare the modern British population with that of 1204
    B. To clarify the relationship between the Normans and the Anglo - Saxons
    C. To emphasise how long English has been the official language of England
    D. To highlight a difference between Old English and Middle English
    7. The word“proliferation” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to _____.
    A. writing style
    B. rapid creation
    C. modern design
    D. unintended effect
    8.In paragraph 4, the author describes the“Great Vowel Shift” by _____.
    A. discussing the standardisation of spelling grammar and usage
    B. citing a specific example of a pronunciation divergence
    C.explaining the results of the innovation of the printing press
    D.defining the difference between spoken and written Middle English
    9. Based on the information in paragraph 4, what can be inferred about how Middle English changed into Modern English?
    A.The transition was a smooth one because Middle English sounded very similar to Modern English.
    B.The transformation occurred as a result of developments in English society.
    C. Modern English created a precedent by pronouncing vowels that had been silent in Middle English.
    D. Playwrights played a larger role in developing the language than most people
    10. In paragraph 5, why does the author mention“computers”?
    A.To provide an example of a word that is derived from Middle English
    B. To show how English has not changed much since the Renaissance
    C. To identify a foreign language word that has
    become part of English
    D. To illustrate a modern creation that has resulted in new English words

    1. Do you know that exceptonally successful entrepreneurs, such as Richard Branson, used to be academically __________by their peers when they were at school? (SHINE)
    2. Efforts have been made to recover disaster - stricken and __________ areas of the country, hope fading day by day.(WAR)
    3. In his recent reports, he recommended the government extend the district to several medium - sized towns and suburbs, but not those major __________ which will be utilised for nature conservation. (URBAN)
    4. In some countries, women can sue their husband for having __________ affairs and opt for one - sided divorce. (MARRY)
    5.Life is full of __________, isn’t it? We do not know what the future has in store(PONDER)
    6.New full-time students from lower income households will be able to apply for a(n) __________ maintenance grant offered bythe government, but have to work in public sectors after they graduate.
    7. Parents should not educate children by giving lots of __________ but help them learn from their mistakes.
    8.Six-core processor is one of the most __________ technologies yet invented to revolutionise the way computers work.(CUT)
    9. Students who have finished the courses held before the main teaching semesters can now sign up for __________ language courses, especially EAP writing course(SESSION)
    10. Students who want to attend the courses do not need to send any registration form and wait to be approved; they can just use the built - in __________ feature of the e - learning site(ROLL)
    11. Thanks to social networks, we have witnessed the __________ of a culture which was once thought to have disappeared forever.(SURGE)
    12. The board of directors pour scorn on the __________’ dereliction of duties, causing the company to suffer catastrophic quarterly losses. (SEE)
    13.The story of Nguu Lang and Chuc Nu is a prime example of eternal love: they are __________ bonded to each another andcannot be separated whatever happens. (SOLVE)
    14. There emerge the __________ intent on spoiling the party, and next in no time come the police to see such spoilsports off. (CRASH)
    15. You can use the camera in either vertical or horizontal position: the instant _________ function installed keeps the frame unchanged but can be modified on purpose.(ROTATE)
    Scientists have long been(1)__________ into the relationship between mental exercise and mental decline. Studies have shown that keeping the brain active is a good (2)__________against failing mental abilities. Those who play musical instrument or even revel(3)__________ solving crossword puzzles are more successful at(4)__________off the onset of senile dementia, an extremely worrying condition affecting the elderly. Now it(5)__________from the latest research that languages can be added to the list of gymnastics for the mind.Speaking two languages fluently is good for the brain, according to research(6)__________
    out on over a hundred people of a variety of ages, using standardised cognitive tests. The participants, who were all (7)__________ from a similar educational and social background, were asked to (8)__________ up
    tasks testing their vocabulary, and non - verbal reasoning ability, and their reaction time was also examined. Those that were bilingual scored (9)__________better than those simply monolingual.The research suggests not(10)__________ that bilinguals have increased mental efficiency throughout life, but also that the(11)
    __________of a second language during formative children years may in some way affect the development of neuronal circuits in the brain. These then help to offset the decline in mental processes as a
    person ages. However, studies into mental decay(12)__________about by aging are still in the early stages and much research remains to be(13)__________. Correlations between persons of differing educational exposure, daily demands and even physical health are notoriously difficult, while genetic(14)_________
    must also be taken into (15) __________. Nonetheless, it is hoped that future research will bring belief to those who fear the consequences of aging.
  2. landghost

    landghost Học sinh tiến bộ Thành viên

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    Quảng Trị
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    Bạn ơi bạn muốn giúp bài nào nhỉ, nhiều thế này bọn mình không làm nổi đâu
  3. nguyenthigiaolinh67@gmail.com

    nguyenthigiaolinh67@gmail.com Học sinh chăm học Thành viên

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    Mình sẽ làm phần chia động từ:
    1. outshined
    2. war-torn
    3. conurbations (chùm đô thị)
    4. extramarital (ngoại tình)
    5. pondering (suy ngẫm)
    6. non-repayable ((nợ) không hoàn trả)
    7. ticking-offs (việc nặng lời khi có việc làm sai)
    8. cutting-edge (hiện đại)
    9. insessional
    10. rollover (một cái chức năng chuyển trang giống hyperlink)
    11. resurgence (sự sống dậy, nổi dậy lại)
    12. overseers (giám thị, người canh quản)
    13. Cái này mình hông biết :>
    14. gatecrashers (người không mời mà đến)
    15. auto-rotate (tự xoay hướng ảnh)
    Nếu có key thì cho mình xin nhé :>
  4. Ngô Thanh Hà

    Ngô Thanh Hà Học sinh mới Thành viên

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    bạn giúp bài nào cũng được ạ.
  5. Ngô Thanh Hà

    Ngô Thanh Hà Học sinh mới Thành viên

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